Open-Air Laboratories


OPERANDUM’s Open-Air Laboratories (OALs) cover a wide range of hazards, with different levels of climate projections, land use, socio-economic characterization, existing monitoring activities and NBS acceptance.

Austria


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Landslide at lower Watten Valley (5 km²)
MOTIVATION FOR CHOICE ACCORDING TO HAZARD EXPOSURE AND ASSET VALUE
- Gravitational landslide
- Deep-seated gravitational slope deformation active in the past decades
- Houses, infrastructure and farm land
- Mitigation measures have not been effective
POSSIBLE NATURE-BASED AND HYBRID SOLUTIONS
- Reduction of surface runoff by drainages
- Controlled discharge of near surface interflow using fascines
- Snow fences for controlled accumulation of snow and melt water drainage

Finland


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Lake Puruvesi (416 km2) in Eastern Finland between South-Savo and North-Karelian regions
MOTIVATION FOR CHOICE ACCORDING TO HAZARD EXPOSURE AND ASSET VALUE
- Flooding, extreme precipitation
- Representative example of inland water system in the northern Europe
- Nutrient loads caused by extreme precipitation
- Habitat for submerged macrophytes, and recreation site
POSSIBLE NATURE-BASED AND HYBRID SOLUTIONS
- NBS able to slow down the water flow in order to allow water-borne nutrients and sediments to descend into the water passage or recesses created next to it
- Construction of sedimentation ponds and pits, buffer zones, wetlands and peak runoff control structures in the catchment areas and selection/limitation of forest management practices

Germany


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Wet and dry cycles, flooding
MOTIVATION FOR CHOICE ACCORDING TO HAZARD EXPOSURE AND ASSET VALUE
- Wet and dry cycles, flooding
- The Biosphere Reserve ‘Niedersächsische Elbtalaue’ respresents Lower Saxony’s contribution
to the UNESCO Biosphere Reserve ‘Flusslandschaft Elbe’ (Elbe River Landscape).
POTENTIAL NATURE-BASED AND HYBRID SOLUTIONS
- Reinforcement of decentralized retention areas in the marshland, unsealing areas and land-use changes, re-activating floodplains, re-naturation of embankments etc.

Greece


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Region of Sterea Ellada
MOTIVATION FOR CHOICE ACCORDING TO HAZARD EXPOSURE AND ASSET VALUE
- Flooding, droughts
- 18 special environmental sites of the region (NATURA 2000)
- Special Protection Areas: Spercheios river, valley and delta
- Aquatic and coastal-marine ecosystems at risk
- World-renown hot springs and spa, essential for the economy of the region
POSSIBLE NATURE-BASED AND HYBRID SOLUTIONS
- Enhancement of water storage by maintaining the capacity of ditches, embanked reservoirs, channels
- Increasing soil infiltration, potentially reducing surface runoff, by free-draining soil
- Slowing water by increasing resistance to its flow, for example, by planting floodplain or riverside woods
- Reducing water flow connectivity by interrupting surface flows, by planting buffer strips of grass and trees

Ireland


Dodder River
MOTIVATION FOR CHOICE ACCORDING TO HAZARD EXPOSURE AND ASSET VALUE
- Flooding
- River flows through many rural, suburban, urban and residential areas
POSSIBLE NATURE-BASED AND HYBRID SOLUTIONS
- Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS) as NBS for the flooding with quick response to extreme precipitation through the application of the concept of:
- constructed wetlands
- riparian buffer areas
- buffer zones with several vegetated areas
- bio-engineering solutions
- promoting practices to reduce water usage

Italy


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Po Valley (Panaro river, Comacchio valleys, Reno, Emilia Romagna coastal area)
MOTIVATION FOR CHOICE ACCORDING TO HAZARD EXPOSURE AND ASSET VALUE
- The delta of Po river is representing the transition between the river and the sea, and has therefore different hydraulic, morphological and biological characteristics
- Flooding, droughts, coastal erosion, potential storm surge
- Economic engine for Italy (agriculture fisheries, food, manufacturing)
- Biodiversity is at risk (UNESCO protected areas)
POSSIBLE NATURE-BASED AND HYBRID SOLUTIONS
- Seeding of deep rooting plants for river-bank reinforcement
- Debris usage to reduce subsidence
- Enhancement of biodiversity
- Filtration strategies to reduce eutrophication and preserve water quality
- Promote practices to reduce water usage, promoting alternative crops

Scotland UK


Catterline Bay
MOTIVATION FOR CHOICE ACCORDING TO HAZARD EXPOSURE AND ASSET VALUE
- Coastal erosion, storm surge, flooding and landslides
- Culturally important area, adjacent to the Fowlsheugh coastal nature reserve (tourism)
- Economically important agriculture/fishery area
POSSIBLE NATURE-BASED AND HYBRID SOLUTIONS
- Eco-engineering solutions to reduce erosion
- Enhance stability of earthworks and natural slopes

Australia


Weany Creek sub-catchment (13 km2), within the Upper Burdekin Catchment (3626 km2) and part of the Burdekin River Basin
MOTIVATION FOR CHOICE ACCORDING TO HAZARD EXPOSURE AND ASSET VALUE
- Gully erosion issues on grazing lands
- Hydrogeomorphic processes involved in gully initiation and expansion Transport of sediments from gully systems to receiving waters
- Impact on the Great Barrier Reef
POSSIBLE NATURE-BASED AND HYBRID SOLUTIONS
- Restoring degraded land using environmentally friendly and sustainable biotechnology
- Developing methods to limit transport sediments and limit erosion
- Improving improve the economy of the area
- Establishing a healthy operation of gully erosion in Great Barrier Reef

China


Shiyang River Watershed (426.4 km2) the dry lands of northwest China
MOTIVATION FOR CHOICE ACCORDING TO HAZARD EXPOSURE AND ASSET VALUE
- Aeolian desertification, dust storm, soil salinization, fresh water shortage, drought
- One of the vital oases and primary habitats for people in drylands of China
- National ecological protection key demonstration area
- Key research base for land degradation with long time data accumulation
POSSIBLE NATURE-BASED AND HYBRID SOLUTIONS
- Restoring degraded land using environmentally friendly and sustainable biotechnology
- Developing water-saving agriculture with regional-suitable new technologies and innovation ideas
- Improving the agricultural industry structure, and cultivating salt tolerant and drought resistant crops
- Establishing a healthy operation of the water market and management

China (Hong Kong)


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The Hong Kong New territories (946 km2), a region between two major urban areas of Hong Kong and Shenzhen
MOTIVATION FOR CHOICE ACCORDING TO HAZARD EXPOSURE AND ASSET VALUE
- Flooding, storm surge, extreme precipitation and heatwaves
- Extreme future heatwaves around densely populated agricultural regions
- Representative example of rural regions in South China and South East Asia
- Presence of high biodiversity value (birds and butterflies species)
- Key research base for heat mitigation with long time data and a comprehensive record of the vegetation/tree data
POSSIBLE NATURE-BASED AND HYBRID SOLUTIONS
- Restoring the evapotranspirant role of the unique fung shui woods
- Increase heat sinks by expanding the existing fung-shui woods for rural villages
- Increase afforestation by planting new native trees to promote evapotranspiration
- Valorize reservoirs and country parks
- Developing design guidelines of green solutions for local rural Hong Kong and possibly elsewhere